End FGM/C Centre of Excellence

Amref Health Africa’s Centre of Excellence to End Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) provides strategic leadership and coordinates Amref’s End FGM/C work in Africa.

Amref Health Africa’s Centre of Excellence to End Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) provides strategic leadership and coordinates Amref’s End FGM/C work in Africa. The centre initiates and catalyses multi-sector action, advocacy, collaboration and partnerships to strengthen global commitments to help accelerate FGM/C abandonment in Africa.


The Centre of Excellence (CoE) focusses on addressing FGM/C as a practice that is perpetuated by deep seated social norms anchored on propagating gender inequalities that negatively impact health, education and socio-economic status of women and girls in practicing communities. The CoE implements activities in five African Countries: Tanzania, Uganda, Senegal, Kenya and Ethiopia through three Communities of Practice: Research, Monitoring and Evaluation, Advocacy and Communication and Community Engagement.

Community-Led Alternative Rite of Passage Impact Study Findings

In 2009, Amref Health Africa in Kenya designed and implemented a novel community-led intervention dubbed the alternative rite of passage (CL-ARP) to FGM/C. The CL-ARP approach to end FGM engages families and communities so that they can make a collective and coordinated choice to abandon the practice of FGM so that no single girl or family is disadvantaged by the decision.


Amref recently commissioned an independent impact evaluation to establish the impact of CL-ARP in Kajiado County on FGM/C, Education, Child Early and Forced Marriage (CEFM) and Teenage Pregnancy.

Our Findings

Amref Health Africa End FGM/C Centre of Excellence

Community Voices on CL-ARP

Download and read our community voices booklet


Watch our community voices video below -:

Amref Health Africa Policy Recommendations on CL-ARP

The impact study on CL-ARP presents three major recommendations:


1. Adoption of sustainable ARP models that place responsibility for continued community discussion, a continuation of knowledge diffusion and public declarations.

2. Integration of communities’ leaders, local stakeholders and law enforcement agencies (including border authorities) in the ARP model

3. Investing in high-quality and state-of-the-art automated data collection and management infrastructure and human resources needed to manage, collate and analyse data is critical.


Download and read the full CL-ARP Policy Brief


Evidence on the effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) And Child, Early and Forced Marriages (CEFM) In Kenya

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected individuals and communities in a variety of ways. The virus has infected hundreds of thousands of people across the world. So far, there is limited data regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals and community cultural practices. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is anecdotal evidence that indicates there is an increased risk of women and girls to undergo Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) and Child, Early or Forced Marriage (CEFM), especially among girls out of school and living in marginalised areas. Apart from the anecdotal evidence, there is no empirical data regarding the pandemic’s effect on FGM/C and CEFM.

Download Evidence Brief.

Frequently Asked Questions on Amref’s CL-ARP Study

We employed a robust quantitative method (difference-in-difference approach) to quantify the impacts of the CL-ARP intervention. The approach estimated the average effects of CL-ARP on FGM/C prevalence and other social and educational outcomes before and after its rollout in 2009 across Kajiado (intervention) versus two sets of control counties with a high and low prevalence of FGM/C. We identified control counties with the highest FGM/C prevalence. These were Mandera, Marsabit and Wajir. We confirmed non-existence of CL-ARP interventions or a similar one in the counties as late as 2015.

KDHS 2018 data has been collected, though not yet released to the public. We are in constant consultation with the Ministry of Health to have the whole data set for analysis as soon as it is ready for public use. However, an analysis of the 2003/04 and 2008/09 KDHS data shows that there are significant changes among girls in Kajiado as presented above in terms of the drop in FGM/C, CEFM, TP and an increase in girls’ education levels.

This is the gist of the study and it shows that ARP has had significant contributions in delays in getting married and childbirth; better school retention and completion for girls; reduction in teenage pregnancies and contribution to the declining FGM/C prevalence in Kajiado county. We may need to undertake a similar study in Tanzania to ascertain if there are country differences.

The meaning of FGM/C in control sites is not the same as the meaning among the Maasai of Kajiado who view it as a rite of passage. These sites were affected by all other intervention efforts in the same way as the study site. The only difference was the specific treatment, the ARP, which we are saying has made the difference as reported by the study.

Yes, the ARP as implemented by Amref is a community-owned model which is community-driven making it sustainable. That is why it is referred to as CL-ARP as the process involves all segments of the community.